In Informative Articles

The Hidden Danger of Bat Guano

Ask nearly anyone, and you’ll hear that bats (although beneficial in insect control) can be dangerous because they carry rabies. But a lesser known danger, and one that is not as easy to avoid, is histoplasmosis, a disease you can get from exposure to bat guano (bat droppings).

What is Histoplasmosis?

It is an infectious disease caught by inhaling the spores of the histoplasmosis capsulation fungus. While it is not contagious, the disease can affect a wide variety of the population who may not even be aware they are at risk.

Should I be concerned about getting histoplasmosis?

Anyone can get histoplasmosis. There are, however, certain people whose occupations make the risk of exposure greater than others. Included in that group are chimney cleaners, construction workers, gardeners, HVAC installers or repair people, roofers, and, of course spelunkers (cave explorers). In reality, however, anyone who comes across the fungus can get histoplasmosis.

But I’ve never touched or been bitten by a bat. So how could I get it?

It’s easier than you might think. Bats become infected with histoplasmosis, and their feces contain the histoplasmosis fungus. This fungus grows in the soil where the droppings land, or in the droppings found in an attic occupied by bats. The fungus then continues to grow, just waiting for you or me to come along to clean out the old barn, the attic, or other place where the spores now lie.

Or sometimes, we disturb the dirt (cleaning up the garden, sweeping out the empty building, or doing other seemingly harmless dirty work), causing the spores to become airborne. When we breathe that air, we then become infected with the histoplasmosis fungus and the real trouble begins.

I don’t do that kind of work. I shouldn’t have to worry about that, right?

Not really. In fact, in 1970, several hundred middle school students developed histoplasmosis, simply because they breathed the spores through their school ventilation system over the few days following a “clean up” of the school’s courtyard as an Earth Day project. Even those children who were not present at the clean up were exposed to the spores over the next few days and came down with histoplasmosis. It was later determined that the spores were spread through the school’s ventilation system.

Want to speak to one of our bat experts?
Click here to request your free consultation today

And there are cases where people have been exposed when working in a city near construction sites where soil containing the histoplasmosis spores was disturbed when the site was excavated. The spores became airborne, and the office workers then breathed the spores through their office ventilation system. Anyone can get histoplasmosis.

How do I know if I have it?

The disease first affects the lungs, and often those with the disease have no or very mild symptoms within the first few days. On an average, around 10 days after exposure, many sufferers complain of flu-like symptoms: fever, chest pain, loss of appetite, dry cough, headache, shortness of breath, impaired vision, and possibly joint and muscle pains. Because of the vague symptoms, you may have been exposed to the disease and not know it.

In many cases, the disease may run its course, and you will think you’ve simply had a case of the flu. Some cases, however, are more serious, leading to long-term illness, often resembling tuberculosis in nature. And some cases, if not treated, are fatal.

If you have a weakened immune system (are undergoing chemotherapy, have AIDS, etc.) or are a heavy smoker, you may be more susceptible to getting histoplasmosis. And if you’ve had it in the past, you are subject to a re-infection or reactivation of the disease after another exposure. This is especially true for the elderly, those with compromised immune systems, and the very young.

If it’s so hard to recognize, how is it diagnosed?

If you suspect you may have been exposed, you should immediately contact your health professional, telling them you may have been exposed, and ask if they recommend tissue or blood tests. The more accurate tests (tissue samples) take a long time for results to show; the quicker tests often show false positives. Thus, it is imperative that you quickly seek medical attention if you think you have been exposed.

If I have it, then what?

Although mild cases may disappear on their own, you should contact your health professional to make sure you are not one of those who should be taking antifungal medicines. Sometimes the disease is spread throughout the blood system (called disseminated histoplasmosis), and if that is the case, medicine is necessary.

How can I keep from getting it?

When you are cleaning an old attic or building, avoid areas that may harbor the fungus, especially if there are accumulations of bird or bat droppings.

Spray a mist of water over contaminated sites if you have to work there. This will help to keep down the dust (and thus the spores).

If you must work around a contaminated area, wear disposable clothing and specially designed face masks that can filter particulate matter of 1 milli-micron in diameter.

Keep bats and birds from nesting in areas in buildings such as barns, and in your house attic or eaves.

Note that you may have to have your home or building cleared of bats and/or bird roosts. If that is the case, it is best to have a company specializing in bat control do this. They will know the proper ways to control the spores and have appropriate clothing and equipment to minimize the risk of getting or spreading the disease.

I have scattered droppings in my attic. Is it safe to vacuum them up?

Scattered bat droppings (guano) do not pose a risk and can be safely swept up or vacuumed. Of course – the dust often found in attics may be an irritant, and you might be wise to wear a dust mask – there is very little risk of Histoplasmosis. It is when the guano starts to accumulate and pile up that the fungus can grow and develop spores.

When bat control professionals clean up these droppings, they use industrial vacuums with special high-efficiency filters, thus reducing the risk to the worker. Even then, the experts don protective clothing and air masks to avoid breathing the spores.

I have a pile of bat droppings in the corner of my attic that is 8 inches deep. Is it okay to be in the house?

Generally, there is no problem if the droppings are not disturbed or if the air vents do not pull up air from that area. However, you should have an expert determine your risk factors in this case.

I had bats living in my wall. Now I have a smell. Is it safe to breathe the air?

While breathing the air may not be pleasant, you should not have problems associated with histoplasmosis. However, be aware that bats may carry bat mites, fleas, and other insects, and they are likely to find a way into your living area. Also, if a bat is trapped, it may die, and the smell of the decomposing bat, as well as the guano, may be very unpleasant. It is best to have the bats removed as quickly as possible.

By Michael Koski

Want to speak to one of our bat experts?
Click here to request your free consultation today

Recent Posts
Showing 83 comments
  • Kelly
    Reply

    I live in a townhome snd my neighbor has a bat prob and is doing nothing about it. What are my options?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      That’s a tough situation. There are really 2 options that I could think of. You could contact an attorney to find out what your legal rights are or you could call the Department of Health (whatever that happens to be for your state) and find out if they could offer any advice. If you are concerned they are in your area as well, we are happy to come do an inspection for you. We have done bat removal on townhomes where one side did not want work done. Call my customer service department at 877-264-2287 and they are happy to discuss your individual situation.

  • Larry Jones
    Reply

    I have a home in rural Florida, on the gulf coast. There is an abandoned telephone pole that sits approximately 8 feet from my home. I was planning to build a couple of bat houses and mount them on this pole for mosquito control. The droppings would fall into the grass and plants at the base of the pole. Is this a bad idea, given the histoplasmosis?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      There is naturally histoplasma capsulatum (the fungus that causes histoplasmosis) in the soil pretty much everywhere. Most people are exposed to it in their lifetime but do not become seriously ill. It is also carried by chickens. We are by no means a medical authority and can not guarantee you will not be exposed. That being said, the scientific community widely accepts that the greatest risk for exposure comes in humid climates, with a couple inches of guano accumulation, that is then disturbed. I believe in your situation, cleanliness would be the key if it is in an area that would be disturbed often by say a lawn mower or something. It will be a trade off for you. Many people have bat boxes erected in poles in their backyards. Here is a great resource for questions on bat houses: http://bathouseforum.org/forum/

  • Walt
    Reply

    We have had bats living behind the air conditioning unit of our building for a number of years and never worried about it. A couple months ago we noticed what seemed to be the odor of a dead animal inside in the area where the bats were living on the outside. We thought a bat or bats had gotten into the wall and died and that the odor would dissipate as usually happens with a dead animal. Two months later, the odor has greatly dissipated but when it’s warm inside we can still smell it. We are now wondering if the bats had found their way into the wall and it could just be the odor from bat droppings and urine. We have taken steps to keep the bats out and they seem to be gone, but now wonder if there is some way to just get rid of the odor, short of opening up the wall and cleaning it out. Is there any chemical that neutralizes this kind of odor?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Depending on the area you live in, there are a couple of things to consider. If you are in an area where Mexican Free-tail bats are common, it could be them. They are well known for their “pungent” odor. This is about the time of year bats start to return. They either migrate or go to a cave and hibernate during winter months. What you thought was “getting rid of them” may have only been them voluntarily leaving and now they are back. Your smell could also be from an accumulation of guano and urine inside the wall. If this is the case, there are things you can do to get rid of the smell. We remove the guano and then have a spray we put on the area. We will also use an industrial air scrubber. My guess,however, is that you do still have bats living there. I recommend calling my customer service and discussing it further since there are many factors that can affect this.

  • Kelsey
    Reply

    I live in a Caribbean country and I felt something wet on my face like water when I looked up it was from a bat .. The wet substance fell really close to my mouth .. What should I do about this ?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      This would be bat urine, not bat guano. Bat guano isn’t wet, it is little brown/black nugget looking things. While gross, my understanding is that urine (no matter what animal excretes it) is a sterile substance. I could be wrong though. If you have concerns that it got in your mouth and put you at risk, I would contact your doctors office and discuss your risk with them.

  • donna
    Reply

    I have bats behind one of my shutters on my house. I have tried to remove them, but my efforts have failed. I have droppings underneath the shutter, which happens to be at the back door, also, the brick has cracked. What can I do?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Bats behind shutters on brick homes are more common than people think. From experience, I would say there is a good possibility the bats are actually entering the walls at that point. Bats will often mark their territory as they enter and exit their roost. I would recommend having one of our technicians come do an inspection for you. Yours is, unfortunately, not a simple solution. It’s a good thing you didn’t say you had wood shake siding though. Then you would have a nightmare on your hands! Contact my customer service at 877-264-2287 or customerservice@getbatsout.com. They’ll help you through the process.

  • BJ March
    Reply

    I had a bat in the house for the 1st time in 16 years, should I be worried that I have a bat problem

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Not necessarily. One stray bat finding its way in the house doesn’t mean you have a colony. There are a couple of things you can do if you want to make sure. Check the outside of your house for droppings (guano looks a lot like mouse poop) and any spots they may be coming and going from. Up high at the roofline you will often see dirt, urine, and guano dripping down the wall where they are accessing it. The other thing you can do is simply watch your house. A twilight watch is exactly what it sounds like. Sit and watch your house for bats leaving. It can take a while so sit there a little before the sun goes down and stay until a little after.

  • Sharon Malone
    Reply

    I have an old barn that I’ve used for storage for a number of years. I knew there were bats in it but didn’t think anything about it. I’m moving now and need to move the contents. There is a layer of poop over everything! Can these items be salvaged or should I just move everything into a dumpster? Talking about couches, many many books, stuffed animals and just furniture in general??

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Anything that is a porous material, I would suggest you just toss. It is pretty much impossible to clean and make safe again. If it is a hard surface (wood or metal) you can safely clean and disinfect it. Make sure you are using proper safety gear whether you toss or clean. And a flimsy little dust mask doesn’t cut it. When we clean guano we use full hazmat suits as it is considered hazardous material.

      As a side note – I’m not sure if you sold this property and real estate laws vary state to state, but most have laws on the books that you are on the hook for up to 2 years for bat removal/cleanup if you don’t disclose it in your real estate contract.

  • Lulu
    Reply

    I have a bat that has been living in my patio umbrella for a few years. It flys away when I open it each day but returns when I close it each night. When I open the umbrella there are droppings that drop out each day. I clean and sanitize the area before using it. Is this dangerous for us. How do I get rid of the bat.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Lulu. The behavior you are describing is not common for a bat. Bats leave at night to go hunt insects and drink. They sleep during the day. What you indicated seems to be the opposite? I would honestly be more concerned about that then about a few droppings at this point. Bat guano is dangerous when there is a large accumulation of it. If you are cleaning and sanitizing regularly you are most likely okay. Large piles grow a fungus that invades your lungs. Please don’t take this as a completely clean bill for you though. If you start to notice a persistent cough, chest pain, or fatigue I would still recommend going to your doctor and letting them know you’ve been exposed to bat guano. They can do a simple test to rule out histoplasmosis. Call my customer service to chat more about an outside roosting bat and a few things you can do to discourage it.

    • Amy
      Reply

      I also have one bat that also leaves in the morning and stays at night. I was also wondering about picking up the guano. I was hoping I could use a shop vac to pik it up.

      • GetBatsOut
        Reply

        There is conflicting information about what constitutes “danger” when it comes to guano. Some experts believe scattered guano is not a big deal. Some experts say one piece of guano needs a complete remediation job. I’m not a scientist or a doctor so I can offer no advice from that standpoint. What I can tell you is that from our personal experiences, if you wanted to tackle a little bit of scattered guano on your own, the odds of you getting sick are small. Ultimately, it comes down to if you are comfortable doing it on your own or not. The only thing I will leave you with is that if histoplasmosis is present in the guano you are cleaning up, a simple dust mask does not filter that out. You do need a heavy duty respirator to avoid breathing in the particulates.

  • Mama Wolf
    Reply

    our family has lived in this old house for just over a year. Before we lived here it was rented out by the room for construction workers, anyways. We went camping about a week and a half ago, came home and I thought I might have forgot to toss a wet diaper, there was a hint of pee smell. Gross right? The next day we had our first hot day here in ND and I kept smelling something that kept getting stronger through the day, almost like dirty hamster cage, No Diaper to be found. So I could smell it coming from the stairs, I asked my hubby if he smelled it and he said it was coming from our daughters room ( The smell was horrible in her room). We decided it must be bats or something ! Called the landlords, when they came over they went to the attic opening, (we had never been up there, it was screwed closed) before we knew it the landlord had it opened and Bat guano came down the stairs. We grabbed the babies and dog and ran out of the house. That is the short version. I took the babies to my Mother in laws that night. No Bats were found up there yet We have heard something in the walls. My question is, while they are gutting the attic, is it safe to be in the house if that area is sealed off? Or should I do what i think and Stay in my Camper while all this is happening. Also, this has obviously been there the whole time we have lived here, should we be concerned for our Health? since it was disturbed with the opening of the attic?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Mama Wolf – IF, and that’s a big IF, the company doing the cleaning is certified in guano cleanup and is following the NIOSH cleanup procedures we use which include sealing off the area and a decontamination area between them, you could live in the house. Ultimately, it does come down to what you are most comfortable with. Any one with a suppressed immune system or asthma in the house? Stay out of there. I wouldn’t necessarily be worried about your health unless someone or all of you have been sick. Most people are exposed to histoplasmosis at some point in their life. There is just a group of people that can’t fight it off on their own. Signs to watch for are a persistent cough that doesn’t get better, headache, fatigue, or chest pain among others. What does concern me is your description of the guano coming down the stairs. If the guano was contaminating anything with a porous material (like it fell on your child’s bed or stuffed animals) those can’t be cleaned to my satisfaction. Those would be tossed if it were me. Who is doing the cleanup for you? Also – since the smell got really bad all of a sudden that would indicate to me that the bats had just returned. The infestation should be addressed before cleanup.

  • Jane
    Reply

    I have been tasked with helping to clean an old, unoccupied cottage where bats had been living in the attic. A bat remediation company cleaned out and sealed the attic, but over the years, many of the droppings fell through cracks into the 1st floor. I am going to wear a mask and gloves, and bring a change of clothes. I believe someone has swept the area, but I’m not convinced that the dust is gone. I am wondering if what is the best way to clean up after the bats? Bleach?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      The fungus that lives in bat guano needs a couple of things to grow. It needs a pile at least 3 inches deep and it needs humidity. The scenario you are describing would indicate to me that the guano is most likely old and dried up. You certainly can disinfect the area with bleach though.

  • Frank
    Reply

    We unknowingly had bats In a sealed off attic space for who knows how many years. The smell was always there but didn’t know what it was (carpet, all those dead mid daubers and ladybugs). Then came the bat bugs. We thought we contracted bed bugs! The U tested and said nope-bats. After one year we finally got an exclusion by a competent practitioner. We got the insurance company involved for the cleanup. They sent us to a mold restoration company, and we signed the contract. They told us the would double zipper wall the top and bottom of the stairs to the attic (but only dos the bottom). They agreed to put a negative pressure hepa filter fan in a window but didn’t do that. The chute they ordered to deliver the demolition materials (drywall, plastic sheet, and fiberglass batts) was for a straight vertical style building, so they chose to carry out through the house (although that was not our plan). The workers wore their work clothes, not protective gear. Some had masks, others not. They carried single bagged waste down two and a half flights. They didn’t change their shoes, and sometimes left the zipper wall open. After the dust settled, about 6 hours later I went up to inspect wearing what I had -an N95 partial. I saw that much of the plastic they laid out was torn and the underlying carpet exposed. They told me they vacuumed the guano and had to scrape some rafters. They say there is a hepa filter in the vac, but it is only a large shop vac. We have stayed in the house throughout the process. We had them seal the vents in the attic and the floor below. I am pushing them to employ the enzymatic spray (I get some pushback that oil primer is enough).

    Should we be concerned that we have been exposed to histo? Does the enzymatic spray take out the histo?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      First – Health concerns – There is a reason for regulated practices on something like this (double zippers, hepa filters, covering carpets completely, wearing hazardous waste cleanup suits, not carrying waste through the living space, etc). Yes, you could have been exposed. Don’t go in your attic again with the N95 mask either. It is not sufficient to filter out histoplasmosis. Keep a close eye on you and your family for symptoms. Unless symptoms develop I wouldn’t rush to the doctors office.
      Second – Call your insurance adjustor immediately. Let them know of the shoddy workmanship being performed in your home. Your insurance company (paying the bill) needs to be aware of what is going on.
      Third – I’m not positive what the “oil primer” you are talking about is. When we do cleanup of guano we always put down an enzyme eater.

  • Frank
    Reply

    Thank you for your effort and quick response. The oil primer is used to block odors (house fires primarily). I just came back from my insurance broker (who contacted claims). We’ll need this info about best practices now that it has come to this. They never should have claimed to be able to handle this. And this company was sent to us by the adjuster (who used their quote for the claim amount). What a nightmare. Thank you again

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      We hope for the best for you. If your insurance broker needs us to come back through and clean up the mess, have him call our insurance coordinator. We’d be happy to take care of you.

  • Renae
    Reply

    Help please any information that I can get would be awesome. The public library in the town that I live in, in Texas, is infested with bats. The smell is vomit inducing. The ceiling is discolored and drooping where the bats have been nesting. We have complained for several years about this issue only to be ignored. My mother worked there for 16 years and was sick all the time. And now the person who replaced her when she retired is having the same problems. The county thinks it is to expensive to fix and that the smell isn’t a problem.( Just light some candles to make it smell better.) When the A/C unit kicks on the smell circulates through the air. I know the smell is not good, but I am worried about what is in the air that we cannot see. Is there a type of air quality test that can be done?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      That doesn’t sound good. First off, encourage the new librarian to go to her doctor and be tested for histoplasmosis. If she tells them she was exposed to bat guano they’ll take care of it. The test is a simple one.
      Secondly, I can tell you that county governments are notoriously cheap. Bat removal may be out of they budget. However, the medical bills they will have to pay for employees and patrons that come down with histoplasmosis or them having to pay for rabies shots if someone gets bit ($15,000 per person right now) will be way out of their budget.
      We do offer an air sampling test for histoplasmosis. As far as I know we are the only company that does. This test will be in the county’s budget. Please email our commercial client liaison so you two can discuss the situation a little more. You can reach her directly at janeal@getbatsout.com

  • Jana
    Reply

    We have super high ceilings (26 ft at the peak) so we are unable to reach ourselves… bats seem to think our home is a barn and live up between the roof and ceiling. 🙁 There is a vent in our bedroom that is now dropping bat dung through it. I am TERRIFIED of bats. I refer to them as flying demons… my question is this, does homeowners insurance take care of the problem? We own the home… but I noticed another commenter saying they called their insurance co. I don’t even have a clue how an expert would get access to remove them? I purchased those high frequencies machines (2 of them) and so far we still have a flying demon issue.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      There are many factors that go into whether or not your insurance company will help with a bat problem. The company you are with and how your policy is written vary wildly from person to person. Just because one person gets denied doesn’t mean you will. We also have extensive experience negotiating with insurance companies. Your situation does sound like there is a possibility of some demolition needed to fully address your problem. (Taking down a wall or cleaning attic insulation etc) I would highly recommend you speak with one of our insurance coordinators before calling your insurance company. We don’t charge anything to speak with you, if we need to do an inspection we will go over that. There is a link on my residential page that has you fill out a form to speak with one of them. If you aren’t ready to talk to us, at least download our free insurance guide before calling them.
      FYI – those noise machines don’t work. They will occasionally get the bats to go away for a few days or so but they come right back.

  • Sam
    Reply

    Hi im looking for some bat guano (droppings)

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Bat guano is dangerous and we don’t keep it around. It is actually disposed of as hazardous waste. I know it makes a great fertilizer and there are many types you can buy that use it. Good luck finding what you’re looking for!

  • Nikki
    Reply

    We just bought an older house for a rental. We noticed bats coming out of a tiny Crack near the peak of the exterror of the house. Looking in the attic we found a few small almost mouse like droppings. Nothing in major quantities. My questions is do you think all the poop is in the walls and how do we clean it??

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Nikki, if the majority of the droppings are inside the walls where they won’t be disturbed we actually recommend you leave them alone unless there is an odor problem. To remove guano from walls you would have to remove drywall, clean, and replace the drywall. We can help you with that if you would like. We also would recommend calling your realtor and letting them know what is going on. If the previous homeowners knew about the bat issues, they are actually liable for the expenses for a certain time period. Most states it’s 2 years but you will want to check your local laws.

  • Gloria Scott
    Reply

    My son is doing some electrical work and the building they are in is has a bat problem, They found guano and urine. Can someone have immediate symptoms of illness after being exposed? Headache, nausea, chest pain and dizziness or light headedness?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Gloria, those are all symptoms of histoplasmosis. Symptoms can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to appear. Histoplasmosis is most often contracted from disturbing large piles of guano and sending the fungus in it airborne. Scattered guano is not likely to have the fungus in it. If he thinks he has it, go to the doctor and tell them he was exposed to bat guano. They can do a blood test or a chest x-ray to determine if he has it. He usually will get results the same day.

  • Sharon
    Reply

    I have just 2 bats I believe that roost in my roof vent or in an opening behind my outdoor chimney to the fireplace. There is no odor anywhere in or near my home. I collect water from my central air conditioning unit below and use the water for watering my potted flowers and flower gardens. There are a few droppings daily in the water pails, some get caught in spider webs below, and a small amount accumulates on top of my outdoor electric box. I simply remove the droppings from the water pails with a small container or screen. Should I be concerned about these 2 bats and their droppings? If I invest in a bat house might they simply opt to stay where they are rather than roost in the bat house resulting in wasted money? This is about the 3rd year bats have come to live here. I live in CT. Do bats go back to the same roosting places every year, what is the life span and do I risk establishing a large colony if I let them be or should we be able to coexist under these circumstances? I have never seen a bat in my home. My 2 year old grandson helps me water the flowers. Should I be concerned about us handling water that has had a few droppings in it but has been removed and should I be concerned about walking in the area even though there are no visible “piles” only possibly scattered guano. Thank you in advance for any light you can shed on these questions.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Sharon, all great questions!
      1 – You should be fine using the water. You actually don’t even have to remove the guano. It is actually an excellent fertilizer because it is very nitrogen rich. Scattered guano doesn’t carry much risk. Keep an eye out for any symptoms of histoplasmosis in you and your grandson. I’m not a doctor so please consult with one for any health concerns about histoplasmosis.
      2 – I am more concerned about you removing the pile on the electric box. Piles of guano are dangerous.
      3 – Bats either fly south or hibernate each winter. They return to the exact same spot each spring to give birth. This means your problem is going to roughly double each year. While you may only have 2 now (that you’ve seen) I still would not advise you to just let them cohabitate. Especially with your grandson around. You are definitely running the risk of a larger colony developing.
      4 – Bat houses are great. However, the bats will not just move to them because you put one up. They aren’t expensive, around $50 purchased or I have blueprints I would be happy to email you. I would recommend putting one up in conjunction with doing a bat exclusion and proofing to keep them in the area, just not in your house.
      As a side note, even if they aren’t getting in to the interior of your home, they are causing damage with their guano and urine inside the small spaces they are living. Bats aren’t house trained and they do go to the bathroom even once they are inside of your home. Check out our homeowners insurance guide for more information.

  • Glenda Daniell
    Reply

    We have bats living in the chimney! We have people coming out in two days to remove the bats! It has been raining for 3 days so not sure if the bats have been out at all. We just returned from vacation this evening and the smell is horrible! The droppings are between the fireplace and the brick. Should we be concerned about the guano? The spores cannot get inside the house but the smell concerns us. We have a 4 year old that is also breathing this!! Is there anything we can pour down the chimney to eliminate the odor once the bats are removed! Not sure this company can remove the guano as it is a very tall chimney.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      I’m not sure I completely understand where you are saying the guano is? I wouldn’t, however, recommend pouring anything down your chimney. I have a guess that you most likely have a bat species called the Mexican Free-tail bat in your chimney. They are known for their rather pungent odor. If you only noticed the smell after they hadn’t been out for a few days, the odds are high that it is the bats themselves that stink. Have the company come out and do their thing, give it a few days (maybe a week?), and see if the odor dissipates. After you have done this, if the smell still isn’t gone, call our customer service and we can talk about some next steps. 877-264-2287.

  • Jukie
    Reply

    I have a small attic crawl space that i store very full totes of kids clothes and an artificial Christmas tree. I went up there last night to get a tote for the first time in months and found the tote and surrounding area covered in bat droppings. The kid is slightly ajar from being overly full. Are these clothes still safe to be warn provided I get the bats and droppings removed? Or will the threat of the h disease mean I need to dispose of the clothes and the open Christmas tree?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Textiles like clothes can be washed and be okay. The plastic totes can be cleaned with disinfectant. I’m not so sure about the Christmas tree. My guess is that you wouldn’t be able to clean it well enough. It’s not a risk I would personally take. I would toss it. Also, while doing anything with the guano, you need to wear a full respirator. You might want to consider calling a professional.

  • Kristin Steffens
    Reply

    I have found this site to be incredibly informative. I have had a mite infestation that has clued me in on the “critter” infestation in our attic. After treating for fleas, we noticed little black specks throughout the house, mainly around heat sources like the dryer, and stove, along with the beds and couches. We suspected bird or rodent mites. My neighbor had a horrible bat infestation last year in their attic and chimney. She could hear them all throughout the night. I never thought twice about it, until recently. Our landlord has hired a critter control company and they placed a sound device in our attic, and said they would return in 2 days to seal off any entries/exits. They have yet to return. I plan on contacting the leasing office but could use some advice in determining if this company knows how to handle the mite problem after the pest is gone. We have been dealing with the mites for a couple of months as my husband thought I was delirious at first, until he started feeling bites. Is there some way to differentiate between the species of mite without a high powered microscope? It seems as though they can handle the heat from our dryer and I refuse to boil anymore water for laundry as it proved to be ineffective and caused more humidity, and also added to the problem. I’m sure I am not alone in wrecking my brain along with the internet. I have had some success with essential oils like geranium and cedar oil. Tee tree oil doesn’t seem to phase them and have used a high concentration of permethrin to try to get some peace for at least a night.
    I have found using enzyme detergent along with Bounce dryer sheets seem to help clean our clothes of the mites, but again, they reappear. We haven’t had as many this week since the device has been placed, but I have cats (indoor only) and am worried that the critter control may not be well experienced or reputable as I have no idea who they are. Its amazing at the little information I was given by my husband and how he thinks it should be sufficient. I still feel itchy despite taking benadryl and am newly pregnant. So, the use of insecticide isn’t favorable, and the risk of infection scares me.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Well, you certainly have a lot on your plate at the moment! No wonder you feel anxious about the situation. There really isn’t a way to tell the difference between different species of mites unless you zoom way in. Bat bugs look a lot like bed bugs and the only way to tell them apart is that the bat bug is “hairier”. As for the critter control company your landlord is using, I have never heard of someone using a sound maker and then sealing off. The main reason for this is that sound makers DON’T WORK! Anyone that really does bat work would know that. What I think this is going to do is seal the bats inside the attic. From that point they will become desperate to get out and will die or make their way into your living space. I would definitely speak with the landlord about the shoddy workmanship you’re experiencing. I personally wouldn’t let them seal off the attic, they aren’t doing it right. Once the bats really are gone though, contact a pest control company. They can come out and spray for the bat mites pretty easily and get rid of them. There’s no point though until the bats are gone. Make sure you specify that is what you believe you have as bed bug treatments for bat bugs are ineffective. If your landlord needs to get real professional help, tell them to call us at 877-264-2287.

  • Andy
    Reply

    I live near a creek. There is a colony of fruit bats, I estimate about 10,000 that are hanging from trees about 200m from my home. There is a footbridge that goes across the creek right where the colony hangs.. The footbridge is covered in splattered bat feces. I take my 3yr old across the bridge on the way to daycare everyday. What risks am I putting her through?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      I will preface this by saying there are different expert opinions on bat guano risks. From the many years I’ve dealt with bats and the research I have done myself, my opinion is that scattered guano in the outdoors runs little risk. If there are large piles that you are trudging through then you may have a problem, especially in a humid climate. There are some experts that believe even one piece of guano contact is too much. Is the footbridge perhaps a part of a park or something like that? If it is under your city’s jurisdiction or perhaps a park services jurisdiction, I would encourage you to get in contact with them about regular cleaning of the footbridge. You aren’t going to get rid of the bats but keeping the area clean would be a simple and effective way to take care of the people using the area. We have a park near my home that is nearly overrun with geese. You should see the mess the birds leave. It’s quite gross. I can sympathize with you. Best of luck!

  • Chris
    Reply

    Hi. We have been renting our home for almost a year and have just recently found out we have bats. We initially thought we have mice inside the walls of our home but the pest control guy said there were bat droppings on the outside of our house. He said the sound is the bats actually scratching the outside of our house. A few months have gone by and we are pretty convinced they are actually inside our walls. We have children and I’m growing concerned about everything I am hearing about bats being bad for your health. Apparently we cannot have them removed because they are endangered?? What can I do? Should we move?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Bat removal guidelines vary by location and by the species you are dealing with. The federal guidelines (not laws) state you can not do a bat removal between April 15th and August 15th while there are non flying pups in the nest unless there is a threat to life or property. You are outside of that. We are very careful to preserve the life of bats during a removal as well. In addition, I believe all pups are flying by now. That is the only real risk in doing our type of humane bat exclusion. Trapping the pups inside. Your landlord is responsible for making your home a safe place. Check out this blog for more help on that front: https://www.getbatsout.com/what-if-your-landlord-will-not-fix-a-bat-problem/

  • Max
    Reply

    We welcomed our daughter’s cat to our home August 10 while our daughter and son-in-law took a short vacation. Beeze stays in a large bedroom at the far end of our upstairs. The third morning my wife found a dead bat Beeze had placed by her scratching post. We had an animal control officer remove the dead bat. It had been dead and was too dried out for a rabies test but we took all our cats for rabies booster shots. Now we’re wondering about how to disinfect the room. We’ve found no evidence yet of guano or urine. Should we have the carpet steam cleaned? The bat had died before our guest kitty arrived; she just found the carcass. And there’s no way to be sure how this little bat entered the room.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      If you’ve had no other indications of a bat problem, this was probably a little guy that found his way in but couldn’t get back out. Definitely keep your eyes open for a little while since you’re aware of this but I wouldn’t go overboard. If you aren’t finding guano or urine, you most likely don’t need to treat with a fungicide. I would clean the carpet if you are concerned and leave it at that.

  • Claudia Self
    Reply

    I have a bat that clings to the porch ceiling at night. In the morning I find the droppings . How can I get rid of this bat?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Outside roosts are actually pretty tricky. Try looking into some products for bird deterrent. I know there is a bird gel that you can apply that bats don’t like on their feet.

  • Shaun
    Reply

    We purchased an empty, old farm house on the East Coast and plan to move there permanently next year. The attic and loft were home to many a bat, therefore copious amount of droppings, some areas six inches deep in the attic section, whereas the loft has droppings (hard to say if it is nice or bat droppings). We will eventually seal off the attic, but want to use the loft for storage – maybe even insulate and put up walls to make a room eventually if we win the lottery.
    Here’s my question. As the attic is insulated with blown insulation, should we have the piles droppings removed, then gently put pink insulation on top of the blown insulation, and finally seal off the attic area, hence doing as little as possible to disturb the droppings and hence making them airborne. Someone has suggested removing the insulation and I am hesitant to do so as that, in my mind, would really stir up a mess.
    There are no more bats in my area as they all died off with White Nose Syndrome. Pity because I actually like them.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      I would not recommend trying to “patch it”. If that makes sense? The East Coast is an area where Histoplasma Capsulatum grows well. No matter how gently you treat the stuff, it’s going to go airborne. If you are not in a full Tyvek suite with a full face respirator, you will be exposed. How sick you would get, I can’t say. I would recommend full removal by a professional in the affected areas. If the south side, for example, has large piles of guano but the north side just has a few scattered pieces you may be able to get away with replacing just half. This is your future home we’re talking about where your family will live. Don’t cut corners here. I equate it to having black mold in your house. Would you only do the bare minimum to remove the areas of black mold you can see and hope your family doesn’t get sick? My guess is no. We do offer histoplasmosis testing. We could get some samples and test to see if the histoplasmosis is present before you decide? If you want to do the testing email janeal@getbatsout.com for more info on how it works.

  • Shaun
    Reply

    I should have qualified. I am not doing the work myself, but having a professional do it. They mentioned removing all the blown insulation in the attic and I wondered why disturb it

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Ah, so the professional should have explained this. What happens during a clean up is that you seal off the room so that everything stays contained in there. You bag (and double bag) all contaminated materials. Once you have everything bagged up and removed a fungicide is applied to the area. The reason why the insulation has to be removed is because it isn’t cleanable. It would be impossible to spray every little piece of insulation with the fungicide. The goal in this type of remediation is to kill the fungus. Yes, it does go airborne, but you disturb it so that it doesn’t continue to be a hazard to you and your family.

  • Wayne
    Reply

    I have an open garage at my rental in Louisiana, there was a board in the rafters and when I moved it, debris fell in my face and eyes. I later realized bats live in this structure, have any advice? I plan on calling my primary care provider.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      The main issue with guano is histoplasmosis. Symptoms typically appear within 3 to 17 days after exposure. They are similar to flu symptoms. Headache, body aches, fever, chest pain, coughing, etc. If you start feeling ill, go see your doctor. Histoplasmosis is easy to diagnose with a chest x-ray or a blood test, as long as your doctor knows you’ve been exposed to bat guano and to check for it. If you have it, it’s treated with antibiotics when caught early. Make sure your landlord picks up the tab for any of your medical expenses as they are liable for them.

  • Nzinga
    Reply

    I also live in a Caribbean country. Some weeks ago I moved into my old bedroom and four nights later, I started experiencing chest pain. Nothing else, just that. It went away when I left the house and it returned the longer I remained. It got so that I couldn’t ignore it. The ceiling is old celotex and was cracked in parts. My old bedroom had been condemned before because of roosting bats. However we got someone to seal the spaces the bats were getting into, and to clean out most of it. But the roof was leaking and did its damage to the celotex ceiling in addition to the weight of the bat guano. So the cracks were there and I thought perhaps it was toxic mold making my chest hurt, because I noticed that my chest hurt less when less breeze was blowing. So we got the ceiling of three rooms taken down because we were terrified of mould poisoning. We mopped up all the bat guano that came down or swept with a wet broom, then mopped. We used regular snug face masks; I didn’t use any protective suiting. Then my mom went up in to the ceiling and saw that the roof had not been thoroughly cleaned of bat guano: there are foot-tall mounds of bat guano in the hard to reach corners of the roof. So now that the ceilings are down, and my mom cannot reach the corners, so we cannot replace the ceiling until we get a bat control professional to come and remove the mounds from the corners, I think we are in real trouble. We live in the Caribbean : it is windy at times, hot, humid, and the roof is still leaking at times. Histoplasmosis fungus is probably airborne in our house since the ceilings came down even though we mopped up the bat guano that came down with them. My chest pain always diminishes when I go outside or into some building with relatively fresh air and comes back once I’m back home. I have asthma and I know it isn’t good for me to live here like this, but what can I do? I don’t have anywhere else to live. Until the bat control professional can be found and the ceiling is replaced, should I sleep with a wet cloth over my face?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Wow, that’s a hard situation! I’m so sorry you are going through this. Since you have asthma and already have a weakened lung system, I recommend consulting your doctor. Let them know that you have been exposed to bat guano and the symptoms you are experiencing. Testing for histoplasmosis is done easily. They can either examine a chest x-ray or do a blood test. I would also speak to them about your living conditions and if there is anything you can do to help. I do not think sleeping with a wet cloth on your face will help in any way. I would recommend you find an alternate place to live until the home is repaired. It is not safe for you to be living there at all in my opinion. I know that isn’t what you were hoping to hear, but I can’t in good consciousness tell you anything different.

  • tuesday
    Reply

    hi. bats just pooed on our clothes hanged outside. i hand washed the bat poop off. they were a lot. is there any chance i got the fungus. i didnt get sick or anything. was coughing a bit before but im alright. should i worry?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      I would not be concerned if it was me. That is a strange situation though. Bats aren’t normally out during the day. I would be more concerned if someone came into contact with that bat. It could be rabid.

  • Worried wife
    Reply

    My husband and I recently visited Mammoth Cave and toured two caves , and took several leisure walks in wooded areas . Two days after returning home, he has come down with fever and cough . Any chance he had bat guano flu?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Anything is possible, but from what you describe, I doubt it. Unless you went walking through piles of guano? Histoplasmosis needs at least 3 inches in a humid environment to grow. And even then, it is only dangerous when disturbed and it goes airborne. If he ends up at the doctor, make sure to tell them about your trip. There are many other things to be concerned about contracting in a cave than just histoplasmosis.

  • Tracy Tosch
    Reply

    I just found out that I have a bat infestation in my attic. I had a pest control company come and find out what was in the attic and I was shocked by the pictures he showed me. Now I have only lived in my house since the beginning of March when we closed on the house. We had both, an inspection and appraisal and neither went in the attic they just took a short glance up there. Now with all that said, I was admitted in the hospital the first week living in my new house for pneumonia and was there a week. Well I really have not gotten better at a 100% and now I have pneumonia again but only one lung and not both like the first time. So now I have to finance $5600 for the removal of these pest. I think the seller should pay for this since the exterminator told me that they have been up there a year or more. So does anyone know what I should do.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      Hi Tracy, that’s unfortunate. We’d be happy to come inspect your home and get you a second estimate. We are the largest bat removal company in the US. As far as the seller paying, I would start by speaking with your real estate agent. If they can’t help, you would need to consult an attorney next. Real estate laws vary from state to state on this type of thing.

  • Elizabeth H
    Reply

    Hi,

    We had a pile of bat guano in an isolated area of our attic that we had professionals remove after the bats were removed. I had several things stored in the attic, away from the pile of guano, but not sealed in boxes. Could they have been contaminated when the guano was removed? It’s been several months now since the guano was removed. In particular, I wanted to use an upholstered headboard that I had up there, but a porous material like that has me worried. Thanks for any advice!

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      There are a lot of things that would factor into an answer for that. How much guano was up there, what part of the country you live in, what safety precautions the cleanup people used, etc. What I can tell you, is that you sound worried. If you are in doubt, throw it out. Your health isn’t worth risking on a small thing like that.

  • Kace U
    Reply

    Me and my friend recently went into the attic of our church, where a vast number of bat poop was. It had a very bad smell, but when we went into the bell tower, at the very bottom sat a large pile of bat poop, but not that bad of a smell. I haven’t experienced any of the symptoms, but it was yesterday (November, Sunday, 13, 2016) that we explored it.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      So, I think your question is about histoplasmosis? The symptoms can take anywhere from one day to a week to set in. You are more likely to develop histoplasmosis if you disturbed the bat guano. Even walking through it would cause spores to go airborne. If you just walked by it and smelled an odor, you aren’t necessarily exposed. It’s the bat guano and urine that smells, not the fungus that grows in it. If you start to get sick (and don’t let your mind play tricks on you), head over to your doctor and let them know you were exposed to bat guano. Histoplasmosis can be diagnosed easily with a chest x-ray or a blood test.

  • Kace U
    Reply

    Thanks. I appreciate your help:)

  • Dani
    Reply

    My husband and I we had a small hole in our room’s ceiling from where a bat came through and into our room one random night… we have now covered the hole to avoid this from happening again but should we be concerned of being exposed if bats maybe lived up there? What would you recommend? Thanks!

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      If covering the hole is the only thing you have done since, then yes, I would be concerned. In order for a bat to have dropped through your ceiling means it was already in the attic space somewhere. Which means it was probably roosting in there. Bats are not solitary creatures and tend to nest in colonies. Which all ties together to indicate you may have a colony living up there. Bats don’t chew or gnaw, they typically just exploit existing holes so I wouldn’t be concerned about them coming through the ceiling again if you have that hole plugged. I would recommend at bare minimum you have an inspection done by one of our technicians. Right now is probably not the best time though. You will likely need to wait for spring since the bats aren’t flying out nightly in the cold weather. Unless you live down south. There are many factors to consider. Call Lori in my customer service office at 877-264-2287 and discuss it with her. She’ll help you figure it out.

  • Kevin
    Reply

    We have discovered that our family room attic has a bat colony after we accidentally caught a bat, during February, as it crawled across a snap trap in a dormer in an adjoining attic space; we have snap traps in the attic as a defensive measure for the occasional mouse, if any . We’ve heard occasional scratching noises only in the family room ceiling in the last 30 days during February. We’ve only heard these noises a couple times in the fall of 2016 and now in the late winter (February) 2017. We live in CT. One unseasonably warm night this February, I staked out the likely access points for a bat and saw 4 bats exit the small opening at sunset. We are having a very reputable local wildlife recovery/remediation company do the exclusion process. With this backstory, my concern centers on the guano risk. We’ve only realized this bat issue over the last 6 months from September 2016 to February 2017. There is no evidence of bat activity in our main attic which adjoins the family room attic and is very accesible by a person but, the family room attic is vaulted and inaccessible from our main attic or any other part of our house; the family room is roughly 400 sqft. To this end, I have no idea how much guano is in the family room attic since it is physically inaccessible by a person from any attic access. There is no accumulated guano at the access point and this is a rather recent problem for us since we have lived here for 19 years. Once the bats are excluded, the firm will treat the main attic for bat bugs in an abundance of caution but, unless we rip out the family room ceiling, there is no way to get to the assumed roosting area. There is no HVAC in the family room ceiling (floor registers only) but there is in the adjoining dormer attic space (closed HVAC system, forced hot air). No smells in the house or family room at all. In your experience, what would you recommend regarding the guano risk? Leave well enough alone following exclusion? Likely a very small colony? Love your site…..very informative

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      I will start this with a disclaimer: There are differing opinions on the risks of guano. Here is our take on it and keep in mind, I’m not a doctor.

      Light scattered guano doesn’t pose a significant health risk if in an area that is inaccessible and will remain undisturbed. If you aren’t experiencing odors or staining on the drywall, leave well enough alone. We typically recommend this for people that have guano inside a wall as well. Some pest control companies will tell you that even one piece of guano should prompt a full remediation. We think this is a scare tactic that our company is highly against and doesn’t use with our customers. Light, scattered guano will dry out, eventually, as well. Once dry, the fungus can’t grow in it. (This is not the case for piles.) Just keep an eye on your family for any respiratory issues that may indicate histoplasmosis. If you ever at any point have construction done on your home, I would recommend telling the contractors about this issue so they can use proper safety precautions. We are glad you enjoyed our site!

  • Tami Jones
    Reply

    We bought our house here in Utah in January “as is” because it was a foreclosure. We knew the attic vents had been screened off because we see the screens and that some of the neighbors have had bats in their attics in the last couple years so we assumed maybe our house had bats at one time but that it was taken care of. As my husband was remodeling he found single dead bats in random places like the return air vent and when tearing down a wall in our kitchen he found about 15 dead bats in one section of wall. In another room on the other side of the house on another level there was a hole punched in from the previous owner and it was so stinky so my hubby shined his flashlight down the hole and found 4 more dead bats. As he cut holes in walls to add electrical boxes and to run wifi cables and such he always noticed the same strong, stinky smell so he finally just cut the bottom of some of the walls and he just found dead bats. He luckily was very careful and didn’t actually touch any of it but he’s found probably close to 100 bats in the walls, all dead. We are thinking maybe the previous owners sealed off the attic while the bats were in there and then they were stuck and died. He cleaned out the attic and removed much of the insulation and dead carcasses that he found but in certain places in the house I still feel like I can smell it. I think he was very careful and did use a nice respirator but sadly we didn’t know about the extent of what he could be exposing himself to until now that I’m reading this so it’s kind of too late, if he is going to be exposed he probably already has. (And 2 of my kids have asthma so this scares me more.)
    We are totally remodeling this house so every surface will be cleaned and painted or will be replaced. Hypothetically lets say there are more dead bats in the walls and in the attic. I have no idea how long they’ve been there. Is there any harm in leaving all these dead bats in the walls? Will the smell eventually go away? Do we need to cut every single wall open? My husband has really only checked the walls that have the HVAC ducts next to them and mostly he’s only cleaned out the basement walls. I really don’t think there are live bats anymore and my husband has checked the attic and the exterior for any areas that they may get in. We know they will be returning soon for the season if they are coming back so we are hoping it’s all closed off well enough. What advice can you give me?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      That makes me extremely sad. It definitely sounds like someone trapped the entire colony inside to die. I would estimate that they killed the whole colony, there is of course no way to know 100%. However, if that many died inside, it is unlikely that any that weren’t killed can get back in.
      So, let me put your mind a little at ease. Utah is a very dry desert area. The bat carcasses themselves smell, but they do not necessarily carry histoplasmosis. The histoplasmosis is found in piles of guano. Utah is so dry, it is unlikely to thrive there. Histoplasmosis needs humidity to grow well. *I’m not absolutely guaranteeing there wasn’t any, it just is not as likely.
      It sounds like the carcasses were fresh if you were smelling them. Bats are very small so they dry out quickly. Once that happens, there won’t be any smell left. It may also be stuck in your head at this point. We do rent out what’s called a hydroxyl machine. It is an air purifier that helps with odors. Call our customer service if you want to look into it. The smell may get worse before it gets better as the weather heats up.

      • Tami
        Reply

        Thank you so much for your expert advice. Your quick response put my mind at ease. Thank you!!!

  • venus
    Reply

    Hi
    I was wondering have you heard of Bats living in a Mattress or Box Spring I am asking because I have something residing in my Mattress and the sound has been that of scratching, scurrying, and a smell that comes and goes with periods of spraying from the culprit that gives off a Musty, Pungent, and sometimes a smell of sausages or deli meat cooking at different times or during the same time however, the smell doesn’t linger and there is no signs of any droppings which made me rule out Mice , I was curious to know if it could be bats I did hear something that sounded like wings fluttering and then it went into my Mattress by the way my mattress is under 2 years old I do have an attic and my home is tidy.

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      No, that is not feasible. I don’t know what might be living in the mattress, but it’s not a bat. Maybe a muskrat? Good luck figuring it out! If it was me, I’d throw it away no matter how new it is. 🙂

  • David J Petrusch
    Reply

    Do bats ever live under the house or possibly can they enter below and go up through the walls to the space between the roof and a finished insulated ceiling on the second floor?
    I heard chirping and squealing yesterday morning when sitting outside before sunrise. I heard something drop from the eaves and the noise ended. I live in a 1927 beach cottage in FL. There are air vents appear to have small openings around them that I know would allow entrance as I understand bats can enter a hole the size of a quarter.
    tonight I heard chirping from under the house.
    Do bats live under homes?

    • GetBatsOut
      Reply

      No, bats will sometimes make it into basements and such, but it is after they work their way down from the top of the house. They don’t like to be low and vulnerable to predators. They can enter very small holes, but they do it while flying. They typically enter at the highest point they can find.

pingbacks / trackbacks
  • […] Is Bat Guano Dangerous? -Get Bats Out – The Hidden Danger of Bat Guano. Ask nearly anyone, and you’ll hear that bats (although beneficial in insect control) can be dangerous because they carry rabies. […]

Leave a Comment

Start typing and press Enter to search